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How to Install and Configure latest version of Ansible on Ubuntu LinuxnixCraft

I am a new Ubuntu Linux user. How do I install Ansible on a Ubuntu Linux 16.04 LTS or 17.10 desktop control machine?

How to import a OpenVPN .ovpn file with Network Manager or Command Line in LinuxnixCraft

I have installed an OpenVPN server on a Debian Linux server. I have a client.ovpn file for my VPN server. How do I use it with Network Manager GUI? Is it possible to install or import client.ovpn file using the command line with Network Manager on a Ubuntu Linux or CentOS Linux desktop?

How to install curl command on a Ubuntu LinuxnixCraft

I am a new Ubuntu Linux user. I switched from Apple MacOS/Macbook and I trying to run the curl command from a shell script but getting the following error:

bash: curl: command not found

How do I fix this on a Ubuntu Linux version 17.10/16.04 LTS?

How to install or compile GIMP filters/plugins/extensions on LinuxnixCraft

How do I install or compile new GIMP filters on a Ubuntu or Debian or Fedora or CentOS Linux desktop system?

How to write/create a Ubuntu .iso to a bootable USB device on Linux using dd commandnixCraft

I downloaded a Ubuntu .iso file named artful-desktop-amd64.iso on a Debian Linux system. How do I write or burn a Ubuntu .iso to a USB device for installation purpose from Linux terminal?

2 awesome open source apps to share your terminal over the webnixCraft

Want to share your terminal over the web for demo, learning or collaboration purpose? Try these two applications to share your terminal as a web application.

How to install xfs and create xfs file system on Debian/Ubuntu LinuxnixCraft

I recently switched to a Ubuntu/Debian Linux server from a CentOS/RHEL 7.x. How do I install mkfs.xfs command on a Debian/Ubuntu Linux server? How do I create and manage file XFS file system on a Ubuntu or Debian Linux LTS server?

userdel: user vivek is currently used by process 749 error and fix on LinuxnixCraft

I am trying to delete a user named vivek using the userdel command as follows

userdel -r vivek userdel: user vivek is currently used by process 749


How do I fix this problem and delete username vivek on a Debian Linux 9.x server?

How to find bash shell function source code on Linux/UnixnixCraft

I am a new Linux server user. I cannot figure out how to find out the source code of a bash function named foo() which is defined. How to locate the file where a bash function is defined and how to view the source code of foo() from shell prompt itself?

How to find disk I/O latency with ioping monitoring tool on LinuxnixCraft

How do I monitor disk I/O latency in real time on Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and MacOS operating system?

How to find and replace text/IP address with AnsiblenixCraft

I need to find an IP address in the sshd_config file and replace with a fresh one for over 100+ VMs. How do I use Ansible to do so? Is it possible to search replace single string or IP address? Yes, you can use the following Ansible modules: replace ? This module will replace all ? Continue reading "How to find and replace text/IP address with Ansible"

How To Run the .sh File Shell Script In Linux / UNIXnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Ihave downloaded software for my Linux or Unix-like system from the Internet. There is a file called install.sh. How do I run an .sh file to install the software? How do your run .sh files from command line?

How to install FreeBSD 11 on Google Cloud Compute VMnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

How can I deploy or install FreeBSD version 11.x Unix operating system on the Google cloud engine? Do I need to create my own FreeBSD disk image to start with the Google Cloud Compute?

How to colorizing cat command output or files using ccat app on Linux or Unix systemnixCraft

The [nixcmd name="cat"] (short for concatenate) is one of the most frequently used flexible commands on Linux, Apple MacOS X, *BSD (FreeBSD / OpenBSD / NetBSD), Unix-like operating systems. It is useful to display text files on screen, copy text files, combine text files, create new text files and more. If you cat command with colours, try ccat app.

How to corrects your previous Linux/Unix command with thefuck appnixCraft

Let us face it we all make mistakes at the command line. Typos? Wrong options? Forget to add sudo? The list goes on. There is a neat little app called thefuck which corrects your previous Linux and Unix command line mistakes.

How To Set Up a Firewall with PF on FreeBSD to Protect a Web ServernixCraft

I am a new FreeBSD server user and moved from netfilter on Linux. How do I setup a firewall with PF on FreeBSD server to protect a web server with single public IP address and interface?

The Librem 5: Your Ultimate GNU/Linux FLOSS SmartphonenixCraft

Purism is well known for Linux based laptop with Coreboot. Now they started a crowdfunding campaign today for its smartphone called Purism Librem 5. What is so special about this phone? It is 100% powered by GNU/Linux. You can run any Linux distro on it. The phone provides high security and privacy features, i.e., it does not track you. This seems like an excellent device. One that I would certainly purchase or recommend to a privacy-conscious person.

Display or print UNIX / Linux path ~ $PATH variablenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

I am a new Linux or Unix system user and I am using a Debian Linux VPS. How do I print current path settings under BASH or sh or ksh shell?

I put a cronjob in /etc/cron.{hourly,daily,weekly,monthly} and it does not run and how can I troubleshoot it?nixCraft



Recently I created a simple shell script called backup.sh in /root/scripts directory to just backup MySQL database and dumped it to /nfs/mysql/ directory. I put a file (more like used the ln command to create a soft link ) in /etc/cron.hourly/ and it doesn't run. There was no error in systemd log or cron log. Why is my cron job was not working, and here is how I troubleshoot it.

How to delete files containing a character or number/digit in their filename on Linux or UnixnixCraft

I am a new Linux system user. How do I delete file containing a character 'a' or 'z' in their filename or digit such as '4' or '2' in their filename on Linux or Unix bash shell prompt?

Linux: 25 Iptables Netfilter Firewall Examples For New SysAdminsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Linux comes with a host based firewall called Netfilter. This guide shows essential iptables command to control your daily life firewall rules and security of Linux server running on the bare metal server, router, or cloud server.

PHP Log All Errors to a Log File to Get Detailed InformationnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Ths quick guide describes how to log error messages to a text file when using PHP server side programming language on a Linux/Unix-like system for debugging purpose.

40 Linux Server Hardening Security Tips [2017 edition]nixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Securing your Linux server is important to protect your data, intellectual property, and time, from the hands of crackers (hackers). The system administrator is responsible for security Linux box. In this first part of a Linux server security series, I will provide 40 hardening tips for default installation of Linux system.

Linux/Unix desktop fun: Bastet Tetris(r) clone with block-choosing AI for consolenixCraft

Xkcd - hell

Do you love the puzzle and Linux/Unix-like system? Command line? Try ncurses based Tetris clone which is harder than every other Tetris out there. From the project home page:

Have you ever thought Tetris(R) was evil because it wouldn't send you that straight "I" brick you needed in order to clear four rows at the same time? Well Tetris(R) probably isn't evil, but Bastet certainly is. >:-) Bastet stands for "bastard tetris", and is a simple ncurses-based Tetris(R) clone for Linux. Unlike normal Tetris(R), however, Bastet does not choose your next brick at random. Instead, Bastet uses a special algorithm designed to choose the worst brick possible. As you can imagine, playing Bastet can be a very frustrating experience!

How To Setup a Firewall with UFW on an Ubuntu and Debian LinuxnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Learn how to use UFW to secure your server and apply common firewall rules /commands on a Ubuntu/Debian Linux server.

Linux: Iptables List and Show All NAT IPTables Rules CommandnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

I am using /sbin/iptables -L -v -n | more command. However, I am unable to list NAT rules. How do I use the iptables command to view or list NAT rules stored in NAT tables? How do I see all the rules in NAT tables under CentOS / RHEL / Debian / Ubuntu Linux based server?

How to change or configure OpenBSD package install mirrornixCraft

openbsd commandI am trying to install nginx server on OpenBSD but keep getting an error that read as follows when I run the pkg_add command:

https://mirror.leaseweb.com/pub/OpenBSD/6.1/packages/amd64/quirks-2.304.tgz" title="quirks-2.304.tgz: ftp: Error retrieving file: 404 Not Found signify: gzheader truncated https://mirror.leaseweb.com/pub/OpenBSD/6.1/packages/amd64/nginx-1.10.2p2.tgz" title="nginx-1.10.2p2.tgz: ftp: Error retrieving file: 404 Not Found signify: gzheader truncated


How do I change or configure OpenBSD package install mirror for the pkg_add command?

How to install vnstat console-based network traffic monitor on FreeBSDnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

How do I install vnStat under FreeBSD version 8/9/10/11 operating system to keep track of my network traffic? (Not a fan of FreeBSD? try vnstat on a Debian/Ubuntu/Fedora Linux or CentOS/RHEL version 6.x/7.x.)

How to add a new static route on RHEL/CentOS 4.x/5.x/6.x/7.x LinuxnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Explains how to configure static routing under Red Hat / RHEL / CentOS Linux version 4.x/5.x/6.x/7.x.

How To Mount a Remote Directory With SSHFS on a LinuxnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Learn how to use SSHFS to mount remote directories on Linux server/desktop.

How to move/migrate LXD VM to another host on LinuxnixCraft

How do I migrate LXD VMs/containers between two Linux nodes powered by Ubuntu Linux?

How to test PHP 7 and WordPress MySQL/MariaDB Database connectivity using a PHP scriptnixCraft

I wanted to test if my PHP 7 and MySQL/MariaDB for WordPress are working. If not I wanted to see some error on screen or for my monitoring system. How to write a script for a quick PHP MySQL DB connection test for WordPress or any other database and send an email or text when site is down?

Where does MySQL/MariaDB stored the data in my harddisk on Linux/Unix?nixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

I am a new MySQL user on Unix-like systen. Where are my mysql/mariadb database and table files are stored in a UNIX or Linux operating systems? Where does MySQL stored the data in my harddisk? How do I find out the location?

Linux / UNIX: Bash Script Sleep or Delay a Specified Amount of TimenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

How do I pause for 5 seconds or 2 minutes in my bash shell script on a Linux or Unix-like systems? How do I pause my shell script for five second before continuing (timeout)?

How to shutdown / reboot the remote Linux server from the CLInixCraft

I am a new Linux sysadmin. How do I remotely shutdown or reboot the server from the CLI?

OpenSSL drops TLS 1.0/1.1 support for Debian Unstable and what does it mean for Debian sid users?nixCraft

From the announcement mailing list:
I've just uploaded a version of OpenSSL to unstable that disables the TLS 1.0 and 1.1 protocol. This currently leaves TLS 1.2 as the only supported SSL/TLS protocol version. This will likely break certain things that for whatever reason still don't support TLS 1.2. I strongly suggest that if it's not supported that you add support for it, or get the other side to add support for it. OpenSSL made a release 5 years ago that supported TLS 1.2. The current support of the server side seems to be around 90%. I hope that by the time Buster releases the support for TLS 1.2 will be high enough that I don't need to enable them again.

curl Command Resume Broken DownloadnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

I know wget can resume a failed download. I am on a Mac OS X/macOS and do now want to install wget command. How can I resume a failed download using curl command on Linux or Unix-like systems?

The Novice Guide To Buying A Linux LaptopnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

All major laptop (notebook) hardware is supported by Linux. The important things to take into account when looking to buy a Linux powered laptop are as follows to avoid any hardware compatibility problems. Selecting correct specification is important. In this first part, I will cover what to look out for when buying a Linux powered laptop.

How To Use awk In Bash ScriptingnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Awk is an excellent tool for building UNIX/Linux shell scripts. AWK is a programming language that is designed for processing text-based data, either in files or data streams, or using shell pipes. This pages shows how to use awk in your bash shell scripts.

exa a modern replacement for ls written in rust for Linux/UnixnixCraft

ls is a command to show files in Linux and Unix-like operating systems. A ls command first appeared in a version of AT&T UNIX as well as in Multics. BSD and GNU Coreutils package provides the ls command with minor syntax changes. There is now third alternative named exa. It is a modern replacement for ls.

How to install and setup Nginx on Debian Linux 9nixCraft

How do I install and configure Nginx web server on a Debian Linux 9 server running on the cloud?

Test If Linux Server SCSI / SATA Hard Disk Going BadnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

I/O errors in /var/log/messages indicates that something is wrong with the hard disk and it may be failing. You can check hard disk for errors using smartctl command, which is control and monitor utility for SMART disks under Linux / UNIX like operating systems.

Linux: How to load a kernel module automatically at boot timenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

How do I Load a Linux kernel module automatically at boot time so that my hardware automatically recognized during system boot sequence?

5 Awesome Open Source Groupware Software SuitenixCraft

Groupware (also known as "Collaborative software") is nothing but an app that helps users in everyday tasks such as calendar/scheduling, address books, email, forums, mailing lists, IM, wiki and more. The use of collaborative software in the work space creates a collaborative working environment. You can synchronize and share your files and photos easily using your hardware while maintaining privacy and security. Here is a list of 5 of them that you must know.

How to install PHP 7 fpm on Alpine LinuxnixCraft

I am a new user of Alpine Linux. How do I install PHP 7.x along with Nginx web server on Alpine Linux?

Understanding /etc/group FilenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Can you explain me the format of /etc/group user group file under Linux / UNIX-like operating systems?

Understanding /etc/shadow filenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Can you explain me the format of /etc/group user group file under Linux / UNIX-like operating systems?

Understanding /etc/passwd File FormatnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Can you explain /etc/passwd file format for Linux and Unix-like operating systems?

How to generate RSS 2.0 feed quickly using PythonnixCraft

I wanted to generate RSS 2.0 feeds in Python. Nothing fancy but for certain tasks I needed it something that is quick and just works out of the box. I found rfeed - a library to generate RSS 2.0 feeds in Python. It is in my opinion straightforward to use.

How To Find a Directory On Linux Based SystemnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

I just switched from MS-Windows server admin to Debian Linux server admin role. I need to find a directory called project.images. How can I find a directory on Linux?

Linux / Unix: Sort ls Command Output By Last Modified Date and TimenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

How do I sort the output of ls command by last modified date?

Top 25 Nginx Web Server Best Security PracticesnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Best Nginx web server hardening and security practice for Linux/Unix sysadmins and developers.

My 10 UNIX Command Line MistakesnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Here are a few mistakes that I made while working at UNIX/Linux prompt.

How to install Letsencrypt free SSL/TLS for Nginx certificate on Alpine LinuxnixCraft

I already installed and setup regular Nginx based HTTP server on Alpine Linux. How do I configure Nginx web server with letsencrypt free SSL/TLS certificate?

How to add new brick to replicated GlusterFS volume on LinuxnixCraft

I have a three server replicated volume setup (scalable network filesystem for cloud and VMs). I need to add one more server. How do I add a new a new brick to an existing replicated volume on a Debian or Ubuntu/CentOS Linux?

How to test the network speed/throughput between two Linux serversnixCraft

I have setup total four servers in cloud based data center. They run either CentOS or Ubuntu Linux. I need to make sure clustered file system performance is reasonable as my servers shared with other users. How do I check the speed between the two Linux servers using command line options for private LAN/VLAN?

How to install the latest/stable version of Linux kernel on Ubuntu Linux using apt-getnixCraft

I read your tutorial about compiling a stable version of the Linux kernel on a Ubuntu/Debian Linux. I wanted to install the same using apt-get command. How can I install the latest (mainline) Linux kernel on Ubuntu Linux?

Increase your Linux server Internet speed with TCP BBR congestion controlnixCraft

I recently read that TCP BBR has significantly increased throughput and reduced latency for connections on Google's internal backbone networks and google.com and YouTube Web servers throughput by 4 percent on average globally - and by more than 14 percent in some countries. The TCP BBR patch needs to be applied to the Linux kernel. The first public release of BBR was here, in September 2016. The patch is available to any one to download and install. Another option is using Google Cloud Platform (GCP). GCP by default turned on to use a cutting-edge new congestion control algorithm named TCP BBR.

How to mount Glusterfs volumes inside LXC/LXD (Linux containers)nixCraft

How do I install and configure the Gluster Native Client on a Debian or Ubuntu Linux? How do I mount Gluster volumes to access data from LXC/LXD (Linux containers)?

How to install and setup LXC (Linux Container) on Fedora Linux 26nixCraft

How do I install, create and manage LXC (Linux Containers - an operating system-level virtualization) on Fedora Linux version 26 server?