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How To Set Up PF Firewall on FreeBSD to Protect a Web ServernixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I am a new FreeBSD server user and moved from netfilter on Linux. How do I setup a firewall with PF on FreeBSD server to protect a web server with single public IP address and interface?



The post How To Set Up PF Firewall on FreeBSD to Protect a Web Server appeared first on nixCraft.

How to disable ssh password login on Linux to increase securitynixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I want to disable ssh clients from accessing using the password and only allow ssh login using SSH keys. How do I disable password authentication for SSH on Linux operating systems?



The post How to disable ssh password login on Linux to increase security appeared first on nixCraft.

Rsync Show Progress Bar While Copying FilesnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I show progress while copying files using rsync locally or remotely on Linux or Unix like operating systems?



The post Rsync Show Progress Bar While Copying Files appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install and setup Docker on RHEL 7/CentOS 7nixCraft

How do I install and setup Docker container on an RHEL 7 (Red Hat Enterprise Linux) server? How can I setup Docker on a CentOS 7? How to install and use Docker CE on a CentOS Linux 7 server? Docker is free and open-source software. It automates the deployment of any application as a lightweight, ? Continue reading "How to install and setup Docker on RHEL 7/CentOS 7"

The post How to install and setup Docker on RHEL 7/CentOS 7 appeared first on nixCraft.

yum Command: List The Contents (Files) Of A Package on LinuxnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How to list the contents of a package using yum command?



The post yum Command: List The Contents (Files) Of A Package on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

10 Tools To Add Some Spice To Your UNIX/Linux Shell ScriptsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



With the following tools, you can build powerful, interactive, user-friendly UNIX / Linux bash shell scripts.



The post 10 Tools To Add Some Spice To Your UNIX/Linux Shell Scripts appeared first on nixCraft.

7 Best GNU/Linux Distribution With No Proprietary ComponentsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



This posts list seven best Linux distribution that meets the FSF's strict guidelines and contains no proprietary components such as firmware and drivers.



The post 7 Best GNU/Linux Distribution With No Proprietary Components appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux/Unix App For Prevention Of RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury)nixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



A repetitive strain injury (RSI) is occupational overuse syndrome, non-specific arm pain or work related upper limb disorder. RSI caused from overusing the hands to perform a repetitive task, such as typing, writing, or clicking a mouse. Unfortunately, most people do not understand what RSI is or how dangerous it can be. You can easily prevent RSI using open source software called Workrave.



The post Linux/Unix App For Prevention Of RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury) appeared first on nixCraft.

How to change root password in Ubuntu LinuxnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How can I change root password in Ubuntu Linux server using the bash shell over ssh based session?



The post How to change root password in Ubuntu Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

30 Best Sources For Linux / *BSD / Unix Documentation On the WebnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Here are thirty best documentation sites on the web for learning Linux and Unix like operating systems.



The post 30 Best Sources For Linux / *BSD / Unix Documentation On the Web appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install/update Intel microcode firmware on LinuxnixCraft

I am a new Linux sysadmin. How do I install or update microcode firmware for Intel/AMD CPUs on Linux using the command line option?

The post How to install/update Intel microcode firmware on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux find process by namenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How can I find a computer program/process by name on Linux? Is it possible to find a process by name instead of PID on a Linux?



The post Linux find process by name appeared first on nixCraft.

How to check os version in Linux command linenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I am a new Linux system user. How do I check os version in linux command line?



The post How to check os version in Linux command line appeared first on nixCraft.

How to use sed to find and replace text in files in Linux / Unix shellnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I use the sed command to find and replace on Linux or UNIX-like system?



The post How to use sed to find and replace text in files in Linux / Unix shell appeared first on nixCraft.

Top 6 Open Source Linux Server Provisioning SoftwarenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Often I need to roll out CentOS/RHEL/Suse/Ubuntu/Debian Linux to a set of the server with precisely same or different hardware configuration. I need Linux automatically roll out without any intervention from anyone.



The post Top 6 Open Source Linux Server Provisioning Software appeared first on nixCraft.

How to check Linux for Spectre and Meltdown vulnerabilitynixCraft

How do I check if my Linux server is still vulnerable to Spectre and Meltdown CPU bugs?

The post How to check Linux for Spectre and Meltdown vulnerability appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux Change Password Using passwd Command Over SSHnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do change my password using the passwd command over ssh based session?



The post Linux Change Password Using passwd Command Over SSH appeared first on nixCraft.

30 Linux System Monitoring Tools Every SysAdmin Should KnownixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



A curated list of 30 command line tools to monitor Linux performance.



The post 30 Linux System Monitoring Tools Every SysAdmin Should Know appeared first on nixCraft.

How To Create sar Graphs With kSar To Identifying Linux BottlenecksnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



The sar command output can be used for identifying server bottlenecks. However, analyzing information provided by sar can be difficult, so use kSar tool. kSar takes sar command output and plots a nice easy to understand graph over a period of time.



The post How To Create sar Graphs With kSar To Identifying Linux Bottlenecks appeared first on nixCraft.

Ksplice: Upgrade / Patch Your Linux Kernel Without RebootsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



This is useful if you've a small number of Linux based servers and/or you want avoid unscheduled reboot just to apply hotfix to Linux kernel.



The post Ksplice: Upgrade / Patch Your Linux Kernel Without Reboots appeared first on nixCraft.

Vmware Linux Guest Add a New Hard Disk Without Rebooting GuestnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



This procedure, adding physical block devices to virtualized guests, describes how to add a hard drive on the host to a virtualized guest using VMWare software running Linux as guest.



The post Vmware Linux Guest Add a New Hard Disk Without Rebooting Guest appeared first on nixCraft.

Debian Linux: Change Hostname / Computer Name PermanentlynixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I change the hostname of a Debian Linux system permanently using the command line tools?



The post Debian Linux: Change Hostname / Computer Name Permanently appeared first on nixCraft.

FreeBSD Change Hostname without rebootnixCraft

I am a new FreeBSD user. How do I change hostname in FreeBSD using the command line option? You need to use the hostname command to show the name of the current host. The root user can set the hostname by supplying an argument to the hostname command. However, editing the file is a good ? Continue reading "FreeBSD Change Hostname without reboot"

The post FreeBSD Change Hostname without reboot appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux / Unix: Find And List All Hidden Files RecursivelynixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



In the Unix and Linux based system, a hidden file is nothing but file name that starts with a "." (period). You can not see hidden files with the bare ls command.



The post Linux / Unix: Find And List All Hidden Files Recursively appeared first on nixCraft.

Show All Running Processes in LinuxnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Learn how to view processes from the Linux terminal using various cli options.



The post Show All Running Processes in Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

Top 32 Nmap Command Examples For Sys/Network AdminsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Learn how to use Nmap for offensive and defensive purposes. Let us see some common nmap command examples for pentest purpose.



The post Top 32 Nmap Command Examples For Sys/Network Admins appeared first on nixCraft.

Redhat / CentOS / Fedora Linux Open TCP/UDP PortsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Learn how to use iptables command on an RHEL/CentOS 5.x/6.x and firewall-cmd on a CentOS/RHEL 7.x to open standard TCP/UDP ports after services are ready.



The post Redhat / CentOS / Fedora Linux Open TCP/UDP Ports appeared first on nixCraft.

What Version Of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) Am I Running?nixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Learn five different methods to find out your RHEL version using the CLI.



The post What Version Of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) Am I Running? appeared first on nixCraft.

How to create a permanent Bash alias on Linux/UnixnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



My bash shell alias gets removed after I reboot the Fedora Linux box. How do I create a permanent Bash alias on a Fedora Linux or Unix-like system?



The post How to create a permanent Bash alias on Linux/Unix appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux / Unix cat Command ExamplesnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



cat is one of the most frequently used commands on Unix-like operating systems. Let us see some typical and unusual examples of the cat command.



The post Linux / Unix cat Command Examples appeared first on nixCraft.

yum find out path where is package installed to on CentOS/RHELnixCraft

I have install htop package on a CentOS/RHEL. I wanted find out where and at what path htop package installed all files. Is there an easy way to tell yum where is package installed on a CentOS/RHEL?

The post yum find out path where is package installed to on CentOS/RHEL appeared first on nixCraft.

How To Show or Hide Line Numbers In vi / vim Text EditornixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



{Updated}How cah I make the vi text editor display or hide line numbers?



The post How To Show or Hide Line Numbers In vi / vim Text Editor appeared first on nixCraft.

Bash Bypass Alias Linux/Unix CommandnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



{Updated}How can I disable or bypass my bash shell aliases temporarily on a Linux, *BSD, macOS or Unix-like system?



The post Bash Bypass Alias Linux/Unix Command appeared first on nixCraft.

SSH Public Key Based Authentication on a Linux/Unix servernixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



{Updated}This how-to covers generating and using ssh public keys for automated usage such as login, backups and more



The post SSH Public Key Based Authentication on a Linux/Unix server appeared first on nixCraft.

Turn On or Off Color Syntax Highlighting In vi or vim EditornixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



{Updated}How do I turn on or off color syntax highlighting in vi or vim text editor on a Linux or Unix-like operating system?



The post Turn On or Off Color Syntax Highlighting In vi or vim Editor appeared first on nixCraft.

Howto patch Spectre Vulnerability CVE-2017-5753/CVE-2017-5715 on LinuxnixCraft

A very serious security problem has been found in the Intel/AMD/ARM CPUs. Spectre CPU Vulnerability CVE-2017-5753/CVE-2017-5715 breaks the isolation between different applications. It allows an attacker to trick error-free programs, which follow best practices, into leaking their secrets. In fact, the safety checks of said best practices actually increase the attack surface and may make applications more susceptible to Spectre. How do I protect my Linux server and laptop/desktop against such attack?

The post Howto patch Spectre Vulnerability CVE-2017-5753/CVE-2017-5715 on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

How to patch Meltdown CPU Vulnerability CVE-2017-5754 on LinuxnixCraft

A very serious security problem has been found in the Intel CPUs. Meltdown CPU Vulnerability CVE-2017-5754 breaks the most fundamental isolation between user applications and the operating system. This attack allows a program to access the memory, and thus also the secrets, of other programs and the operating system. How do I protect my Linux server and laptop/desktop against such attack?

The post How to patch Meltdown CPU Vulnerability CVE-2017-5754 on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux/Unix desktop fun: Simulates the display from ?The Matrix?nixCraft

The Matrix is a science fiction action movie from 1999. It was written and directed by the Wachowski Brothers. The film has falling green characters on screen. The digital rain is representing the activity of the virtual reality in "The Matrix." You can now have Matrix digital rain with CMatrix on a Linux or Unix terminal too.

The post Linux/Unix desktop fun: Simulates the display from ?The Matrix? appeared first on nixCraft.

Turn off color in Linux terminal/bash sessionnixCraft

I am a new GNU/Linux user. I see a colorful bash prompt. Traditional command such as grep command or ls command also display output in colors. I would also like a turn off colors in vim text editor. I do not like colors. How can I turn off color listing in Linux terminal?

The post Turn off color in Linux terminal/bash session appeared first on nixCraft.

30 Handy Bash Shell Aliases For Linux / Unix / Mac OS XnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



This post shows how to create and use aliases including 30 practical examples of bash shell aliases.



The post 30 Handy Bash Shell Aliases For Linux / Unix / Mac OS X appeared first on nixCraft.

How To Set Readonly File Permissions On Linux / Unix Web Server DocumentRootnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



{Updated}How do I set a read-only permission for all of my files stored in /var/www/html/ directory?



The post How To Set Readonly File Permissions On Linux / Unix Web Server DocumentRoot appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux / UNIX: Delete a filenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



{Updated}How do I delete a file under a Linux / UNIX / *BSD / AIX / HP-UX operating system using command line options?



The post Linux / UNIX: Delete a file appeared first on nixCraft.

How to use curl command with proxy username/password on Linux/ UnixnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



{Updated} How do I tell the curl command to use my proxy settings from Google Chrome browser?



The post How to use curl command with proxy username/password on Linux/ Unix appeared first on nixCraft.

How to check list of users in UnixnixCraft

I am a new Unix system user. How can I view system users in Unix operating system using the command line option?

The post How to check list of users in Unix appeared first on nixCraft.

How to exclude file when using scp command recursivelynixCraft

I need to copy all the *.c files from local laptop named hostA to hostB including all directories. I am using the following scp command but do not know how to exclude specific files (such as *.out): $ scp -r ~/projects/ user@hostB:/home/delta/projects/ How do I tell scp command to exclude particular file or directory at ? Continue reading "How to exclude file when using scp command recursively"

The post How to exclude file when using scp command recursively appeared first on nixCraft.

How to add ssh key to qcow2 Linux cloud images using virt-sysprepnixCraft

I have installed and setup KVM server on an Ubuntu Linux. I downloaded various .qcow2 cloud images. How do I setup public ssh keys for downloaded CentOS/FreeBSD/Ubuntu cloud images using virt-sysprep? You need to use a command called virt-sysprep that lets you reset or unconfigure virtual machines in preparation for cloning them. Step 1: Install ? Continue reading "How to add ssh key to qcow2 Linux cloud images using virt-sysprep"

The post How to add ssh key to qcow2 Linux cloud images using virt-sysprep appeared first on nixCraft.

How to use/run bash aliases over ssh based sessionnixCraft

I have set up a bash alias named file_repl. It works entirely when I log in using ssh command. However, my bash aliases are not running over ssh, for example:

$ ssh vivek@server1.cyberciti.biz file_repl

bash: file_repl: command not found


How do I run bash shell aliases when I use ssh command?

The post How to use/run bash aliases over ssh based session appeared first on nixCraft.

How to mount an ISO image/file under LinuxnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Want to mount downloaded ISO image? Here is how to mount an iso file using the cli or gui method on Linux.

BASH - Fix The Display and Console Gibberish on a Linux / Unix / OS X / BSD SystemsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Use reset command after a Linux / UNIX / bash shell program dies leaving a terminal in an abnormal state. This will reset screen to normal mode.

20 Unix/Linux Command Line Tricks - Part InixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Unix and Linux command line tricks for the cli user. Enjoy!

Linux creating CD-ROM ISO images from a CD, DVD, Blu-raynixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Explains how to use dd command on Linux to create an ISO image from a DVD/BD/CD and restore it as per need.

Linux / Unix Desktop Fun: Christmas Tree For Your TerminalnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

Create a colorful animated Yule/Christmas tree for your text console on a Linux or Unix-based system for fun.

How to use yum command on CentOS/RHELnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts

This page show 30 examples of common sysadmin tasks that you can perform using yum command on a CentOS or RHEL.

Ubuntu 17.10 no longer available for download due to LENOVO bios getting corruptednixCraft

ubuntu-17-download-disabled

Lenovo is a Chinese multinational technology company that is well known for LENOVO laptops, desktops and other IT equipment. The download of Ubuntu Linux 17.10 is currently discouraged due to an issue on specific Lenovo laptop models that are causing BIOS corruption or laptop bricking.

The post Ubuntu 17.10 no longer available for download due to LENOVO bios getting corrupted appeared first on nixCraft.

Deleting all existing comment author urls in WordPress using mysql commandnixCraft

I have like over 50k+ comments posted on this site. A commenter is allowed to leave their website or Github/Twitter URL in the comment section. Unfortunately, many websites are dead creating a mess. Many are just spam and nothing else. This is not good for anyone. Here is a quick way to delete all existing comment author URLs in WordPress using mysql command line option.

The post Deleting all existing comment author urls in WordPress using mysql command appeared first on nixCraft.

Unix command to find a file in a directory and subdirectorynixCraft

I think I lost (or forgot the file location) a file named toms-first-birthday.mp4 on my Unix based system. Is there is a Unix bash shell command to find a file called "toms-first-birthday.mp4" in a directory and subdirectories?

The post Unix command to find a file in a directory and subdirectory appeared first on nixCraft.

How to find and tar files into a tar ballnixCraft

I would like to find all documents file *.doc and create a tarball of those files and store in /nfs/backups/docs/file.tar. Is it possible to find and tar files on a Linux or Unix-like system?

The post How to find and tar files into a tar ball appeared first on nixCraft.

How to enable and start services on Alpine LinuxnixCraft

How do I add or delete service at boot time on an Alpine Linux? How do I enable service such as Nginx/Apache at boot time on an Alpine Linux? How do I start/stop/restart services on an Alpine Linux?

The post How to enable and start services on Alpine Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

How to configure wireless wake-on-lan for Linux WiFi cardnixCraft

I have Network Attached Storage (NAS) server that backups all my devices. However, I am having a hard time with my Linux powered laptop. I cannot backup my laptop/computer when it is in suspended or sleep mode. How do I configure my wifi on a laptop to accept a wireless wol when using Intel-based wifi card?

The post How to configure wireless wake-on-lan for Linux WiFi card appeared first on nixCraft.

How to customize title in WordPress themes using pre_get_document_titlenixCraft

WordPress version 4.4 and above use a filter called pre_get_document_title() for a customzing title for each page, post, tag, category and more. For example, I can change 404 error title using this filter. One can use the wp_title() which was formerly deprecated in version 4.4 but was returned for compatibility reasons.

The post How to customize title in WordPress themes using pre_get_document_title appeared first on nixCraft.