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How to display countdown timer in bash shell script running on Linux/UnixnixCraft

I want to display a countdown before purging cache from CDN network. Is there an existing command to show a conuntdown from 30..1 as 30,29,28,...1 on Linux or Unix bash shell script?

How to install and use Monit on Ubuntu/Debian Linux server as process supervision toolnixCraft

How do I install and configure monit to restart services such as Nginx/Apache/OpenVPN server when failed on Debian or Ubuntu Linux?

How to add ZIL write and L2ARC read cache SSD devices in FreeNASnixCraft

How do I add the write cache called the ZIL and read cache called L2ARC to my my zroot volume? How do I extend my existing zroot volume with ZIL and L2ARC ssd disks of FreNSA server?

How to find and delete directory recursively on Linux or Unix-like systemnixCraft

I type 'find . -type d -iname foo -delete' command to find the foo directories and delete them. However, I am getting an error message that read as find: cannot delete './hourly.4/data/foo': Directory not empty on Linux server. How do delete directories based on find command output on Linux or Unix-like system?

How to run two or multiple networks instance of Tinc VPN on same boxnixCraft

How do I use Tinc to create a mesh network of two different VPN on the same server? Is it possible to create multiple VPN tunnels between two hosts using tinc VPN software?

How To Patch and Protect Linux Kernel Stack Clash Vulnerability CVE-2017-1000364 [ 19/June/2017 ]nixCraft

A very serious security problem has been found in the Linux kernel called "The Stack Clash." It can be exploited by attackers to corrupt memory and execute arbitrary code. An attacker could leverage this with another vulnerability to execute arbitrary code and gain administrative/root account privileges. How do I fix this problem on Linux?

How to find out if my Ubuntu/Debian Linux server needs a rebootnixCraft

I use ansible-playbook to update my VMs and bare metal servers hosted in a remote data center. How do I tell, whether the Ubuntu Linux server requires a reboot using the command line over ssh based session?

Download of The Day: Debian Linux 9 ( Stretch )nixCraft

Debian GNU/Linux version 9.0 stretch has been released ( jump to download ) after many months of constant development and available for download in various media format. Debian 9.0 is a free operating system includes various new features such as support for mips64el architecture, GNOME 3.22, KDE Plasma 5.8, LXDE, LXQt 0.11, MATE 1.16, Xfce 4.12, Linux kernel 4.9 and more. Debian 9 is dedicated to the project's founder Ian Murdock, who passed away on 28 December 2015. Debian 8.x 64-bit-mate-desktop-screenshot

How to run cron job every minute on Linux/UnixnixCraft

I want to run a cron job that should run a specific shell script /home/jobs/sync.cache.sh every minute. How do I use crontab to execute script every minute on Linux or Unix-like system?

How to redirect non-www to www HTTP / TLS /SSL traffic on NginxnixCraft

I want ALL cyberciti.biz to go to www.cyberciti.biz for SEO and other reasons. I want ALL HTTP traffic to go to HTTPS. How do I redirect all HTTP/HTTPS non-www (e.g. domain name cyberciti.biz) traffic to www (e.g. domain name www.cyberciti.biz) when using Nginx web server?

Ubuntu: /dev/xvda2 should be checked for errorsnixCraft

When I log in to my Ubuntu Linux 16.04 LTS AWS cloud server, I get the message on screen: /dev/xvda2 should be checked for errors. I can not run fsck command on /dev/xvda1 because it is mounted. How do I check my disk for error without corrupting data?

How to upgrade from Debian Linux 8 Jessie to Debian 9 Stretch using command line over ssh based sessionnixCraft

How do I upgrade my Debian 8 (Jessie) system to Debian 9 (Stretch) using command line over ssh based session?

How To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) Stack on Debian 9 StretchnixCraft

I am a new user of Debian 9 operating system. Can you tell me how to setup and install LAMP stack on a Debian 9 (Stretch)?

How to prevent sed -i command overwriting my symlinks on Linux or UnixnixCraft

I recently ran a command 'sed -i 's/CONFIG_1/CONFIG_OPT_2/g' /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*.conf' on a Debian Linux server. However, the sed command destroyed the link and created a regular file in place of the link file. How can I prevent my 'sed -i' command from destroying symlinks on Linux or Unix-like system?

Ansible: Could not find aptitude. Please ensure it is installed Error and SolutionnixCraft

I am running the 'ansible-playbook -i hostnames upgrade.yml' command but getting an error that read as follows

fatal: [db1]: FAILED! => {"changed": false, "failed": true, "msg": "Could not find aptitude. Please ensure it is installed."}

My yml file includes the following line:

- apt: update_cache=yes upgrade=yes

How do I fix this error on a Debian or Ubuntu Linux server?

How to prevent unprivileged users from viewing dmesg command output on LinuxnixCraft

I want to restrict both normal users and root user inside LXD container "hypervisor" from viewing and using dmesg command output. How do I prevent non-root (unprivileged) Linux users from viewing the Linux kernel's log buffer?

How to allow root login from one IP address with ssh public keys onlynixCraft

I am using MacOS on the desktop and Ubuntu Linux on the server. I disabled root login over ssh and enabled ssh based public key login. However, I recently added second Ubuntu server. I need to sync file between two using rsync command. Is there any way that I can log from the second server into my first server with root user from second server IP address only ({root@secondBOX }# ssh root@firstBOX1) without reducing OpenSSH server security option?

How to install tinc VPN on Ubuntu Linux 16.04 to secure trafficnixCraft

I have two VPS running in the cloud. The first one is the database, and another one is the web server. I want to secure traffic that flows between private network which is insecure by design and I do not want to use OpenVPN due to complex settings. How do I install and setup tinc VPN server and secure my traffic over VPN on Ubuntu Linux 16.04 LTS server?

How to configure Nginx SSL/TLS passthrough with TCP load balancingnixCraft

How do I configure SSL/TLS pass through on Nginx load balancer running on Linux or Unix-like system? How do I load balance TCP traffic and setup SSL Passthrough to pass SSL traffic received at the load balancer onto the backend web servers?

Linux security alert: Bug in sudo?s get_process_ttyname() [ CVE-2017-1000367 ]nixCraft


There is a serious vulnerability in sudo command that grants root access to anyone with a shell account. It works on SELinux enabled systems such as CentOS/RHEL and others too. A local user with privileges to execute commands via sudo could use this flaw to escalate their privileges to root. Patch your system as soon as possible.

How to extract multiple tar ball (*.tar.gz) files in directory on Linux or UnixnixCraft

I have tried tar -xvf *.tar.gz command, but getting an error that read as:

tar (child): *.gz: Cannot open: No such file or directory

tar (child): Error is not recoverable: exiting now

tar: Child returned status 2

tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now

How can I extract multiple *.tar.gz files in directory using Linux or Unix-shell prompt?

How to append text to a file when using sudo command on Linux or UnixnixCraft

I am trying to add entry to /etc/hosts file using 'sudo echo ' router' >> /etc/hosts' but getting an error that read as, -bash: /etc/hosts: Permission denied. How do I insert or append text to a file when running sudo command on Linux or Unix-like system?

How to upload ssh public key to as authorized_key using AnsiblenixCraft

How do I use Ansible to upload ssh public key to as authorized_key to multiple Linux or Unix servers saved in an inventory file?

How to count total number of word occurrences using grep on Linux or UnixnixCraft

I want to find out how many times a word (say foo or an IP address) occurs in a text file using the grep command on Linux or Unix-like system?

How To Install Nginx web server on Alpine LinuxnixCraft

I am a new user of Alpine Linux. How do I install nginx web server on Alpine Linux?

How to disable ssh motd welcome message on Ubuntu LinuxnixCraft

I want to disable the message of the day (motd) welcome message after I login over ssh on Ubuntu Linux. How do I disable motd on Ubuntu Linux 17.04?

Libreboot T400: A GNU+Linux laptop that respects your freedomnixCraft

The Libreboot T400 is certified by the Free Software Foundation, under their Respects Your Freedom hardware certification program. It is now available at a reduced price without any binary blobs or backdoors in BIOS. The Libreboot T400 comes without the Intel Management Engine.

Google Chrome: Clear or flush the DNS cachenixCraft

I think Google has its own dns caching system. I am getting the same old dns entry in my Google Chrome browser on both Linux and Apple OS X. How do I flush or clear the DNS cache in Google Chrome browser without compete shutting down?

How to list VM images in LXD (Linux Containers)nixCraft

I am using LXD ("Linux Container") on Ubuntu Linux serer. How do I list all available VM images for installation in the LXD image store?

How to use the cURL command to do a POST data to fields on Linux or UnixnixCraft

How do I use the cURL command on Linux or Unix to post data i.e. upload something on Linux or Unix? How do I make a POST request with the cURL Linux command-line to upload file?

How to login with root password when using Ansible toolnixCraft

I need to run a Linux command over 20 servers using a root user and password in Ansible too. How do I pass a user and password in Ansible over ssh based session? How can I set a default Ansible username/password for ssh connection?

How to unzip a zip file using the Linux and Unix bash shell terminalnixCraft

I grabbed a master.zip file from the Github public repo on my Linux VPS hosted at AWS. How do I unzip the file using bash ssh terminal? How can I unzip a file on Ubuntu/CentOS/Debian Linux/UNIX-like server?

Alpine Linux 3.6.0 has been releasednixCraft

Alpine Linux 3.6.0 released

Alpine Linux version 3.6 has been released. Alpine Linux is built around musl libc and busybox. This makes it smaller and more resource efficient than traditional GNU/Linux distributions. A container requires no more than 8 MB, and a minimal installation to disk requires around 130 MB of storage. Not only do you get a fully-fledged Linux environment but a large selection of packages from the repository. Alpine Linux was designed with security in mind. The kernel is patched with an unofficial port of grsecurity/PaX, and all userland binaries are compiled as Position Independent Executables (PIE) with stack smashing protection. These proactive security features prevent exploitation of entire classes of zero-day and other vulnerabilities.

Delete a non-empty directory when you get directory not empty error on LinuxnixCraft

I am trying to remove a directory named data in my $HOME. However, I am getting an error that read as 'rmdir: data/: Directory not empty'. How do I delete a non-empty directory in bash terminal running on Linux operating system?

7 Awesome ChatOps Open Source Software For Conversation-driven Development and ManagementnixCraft

A software bot is nothing but a set of scripts or an independent program that connects to web services or chat services as a client to perform automated functions. Often, bots are deployed from a server. It runs in background and performer various activities such as giving out information, providing an answer to common questions, ? Continue reading "7 Awesome ChatOps Open Source Software For Conversation-driven Development and Management"

Windows like Ctrl + Alt + Delete on MacOS App To Kill TasksnixCraft

On Windows, I can hit Ctrl + Alt + Delete and kill apps or do other stuff. Sometimes Firefox browser hangs on macOS. Is there an equivalent of Ctrl + Alt + Delete keyboard shortcut to kill frozen apps on Apple macOS Sierra?

How to use sed to find and replace text in files in Linux / Unix shellnixCraft

I am a new Linux user. I wanted to find the text called "foo" and replaced to "bar" in the file named "hosts.txt." How do I use the sed command to find and replace on Linux or UNIX-like system?

How to ping and test for a specific port from Linux or Unix command linenixCraft

Intel Euclid: Ideal platform for Robotics and Ubuntu Linux powers itnixCraft

Intel announced Euclid development kit for robotics. It is Ubuntu Linux 16.04 based system. One can run, monitor and manage their robotics apps with the web interface. The software works with any ROS-based (Robotics Operating System) robot such as Arduino to build sensing capabilities in your project. You can use sensors and cameras to control a robot.

Accidentally overwrote a binary file on Linux? Here is how to restore itnixCraft

A shell script went wild due to some bug, and the script overwrote a binary file /bin/ping. Here is how tor restores it.

How to find out and show a log of actions taken by the software management on LinuxnixCraft

I am a new Debian Linux server user. How can I display a log of actions taken by the apt-get command or apt command or dnf command or yum command software management command?

Yearly ads statistics for nixCraft757064617465 ? nixCraft

Stats are here:

Year% of Ad block user

Running a site like nixCraft.com/www.cyberciti.biz takes lots of time and I am unable to cover my costs. If you find nixCraft useful please support nixCraft:


Dad: What are clouds made of in IT?757064617465 ? nixCraft

Kid: Dad, What are clouds made of in IT? Sysadmin dad:

Dating a sysadmin: What?s your idea of a perfect date?757064617465 ? nixCraft

She: What?s your idea of a perfect date? Me: Unix epoch time

How to install kotlin programming language on Ubuntu/Debian LinuxnixCraft

How do I install the latest version of kotlin programming language on Ubuntu or Debian Linux system?

Book Review: Relayd and Httpd MasterynixCraft

httpd-bookThe httpd server is a web server with FastCGI and TLS support. The relayd is a free and open source load-balancer and web-proxy server. One can use httpd and relayd to run a static website, blog, a PHP base application and so on using OpenBSD, FreeBSD, TrueOS, and HardenedBSD operating system. The book "Relayd and Httpd Mastery" talks about web server, distribute traffic between backends, running dynamic web sites, php based web apps, securing and optimizing web server, LibreSSL based modern cryptography library, TLS/SSL support and load-balancing your web traffic across multiple servers.

How to configure Samba to use SMBv2 and disable SMBv1 on Linux or UnixnixCraft

I am a new Linux user and for security reasons and to avoid ransomware, I would like to disable the SMB1 protocol in samba configuration on a CentOS Linux version 7 server. Is it possible to disable SMBv1 on a Linux or UNIX-like operating system?

Family and Friends: Tech Support Issue757064617465 ? nixCraft

You know, I should help that friend to work on that single point of failure. The printer. LOL

mycli: Awesome MySQL/MariaDB mysql client with auto-completion and syntax highlightingnixCraft

I already wrote about auto-completion in the MySQL/MaiaDB command-line client using an auto-rehash feature. Recently I found out a new tool called mycli. It is a command line interface for MySQL, MariaDB, and Percona with auto-completion and syntax highlighting.

10 Alpine Linux apk Command ExamplesnixCraft

I am new Alpine Linux system admin user. How do I use apk command line utility for the package management on Apline Linux server running in cloud or a Linux container? How can I use the apk command for the package management?

Is my Linux server or desktop affected by WannaCrypt ransomware?nixCraft

From my mailbag:

Dear nixCraft,

I run a Debian Linux 8.x on my Desktop and Ubuntu Linux 16.04 LTS on my Linode cloud server for my personal website. I am concerned that my Linux is affected by the recent Wannacrypt malware. I am reading about a ransomware attack, what do I need to do? Should I be worried?

--Concerned Linux User

How to get domain name from URL in bash shell scriptnixCraft

How can I extract or fetch a domain name from a URL string (e.g. https://www.cyberciti.biz/index.php) using bash shell scripting under Linux or Unix-like operating system?

OMG. The universe is powered by Debian Linux. Great choice universe. Hah!757064617465 ? nixCraft

How to analyze Nginx configuration files for security misconfiguration on Linux or UnixnixCraft

How do I install Gixy for Nginx configuration static analyzer on GNU/Linux operating system to to prevent security misconfiguration and automate flaw detection?

How to check whether AMT is enabled and provisioned under LinuxnixCraft

How do I check whether Intel Active Management Technology (AMT) and Intel Standard Manageability (ISM) enabled or disabled under Linux using command line for CVE-2017-5689 vulnerability?

sudo apt-get install car? Would you?757064617465 ? nixCraft

Found apt-get command line fan ? Another car: HTTP/1.1 200 OK status ? And finally some SQL injection?Lmao ?

How to install and use vtop graphical terminal activity monitor on LinuxnixCraft

The vtop is a graphical activity monitor for the command line written in Node.js. How do I install vtop on my Linux server?

How to install Node.js on Ubuntu Linux 16.04 LTS servernixCraft

How do I install Node.js ("Javascript for server-side programming") on an Ubuntu Linux 16.04 LTS server using command line only option?

3 Awesome Complete Open Source Mail Servers Solutions For Linux and UNIX serversnixCraft

In the world of mail servers, there are many software and technologies. Here is a list of 3 of them that you must know.

Lmao: Command Line Russian Roulette For Linux and Unix Users757064617465 ? nixCraft

Russian Roulette is a fatal game of chance in which a player places a single round in a revolver, spins the cylinder, places the muzzle against their head, and pulls the trigger.