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How to install snapd on Fedora Linux system using dnf commandnixCraft

How do I install snapd on Fedora Linux to run and manage snaps?

The post How to install snapd on Fedora Linux system using dnf command appeared first on nixCraft.

Update Fedora Linux using terminal for latest software patchesnixCraft

I recently switched from Windows server to Fedora 28 server running in the cloud. How do I apply software updates and patches on Fedora 28 server using the terminal application?

The post Update Fedora Linux using terminal for latest software patches appeared first on nixCraft.

Iptables insert rule at top of tables ( PREPEND rule on Linux )nixCraft

I want to insert the iptables rule at the top of given tables such as filter table INPUT chain. How do I prepend iptables rules at the top of a filter table on Linux operating system?

The post Iptables insert rule at top of tables ( PREPEND rule on Linux ) appeared first on nixCraft.

How to create FreeNAS Jails with iocagenixCraft

How do I install and use a FreeBSD jail manage called iocage on FreeNAS server from the command line? How do I create FreeNAS jail with iocage command?

The post How to create FreeNAS Jails with iocage appeared first on nixCraft.

What does rm -rf command do on a Linux or UnixnixCraft

I am a new Linux sysadmin. What is the purpose of rm -rf command on a Linux? What does rm -rf command do on a Unix-like operating system?

The post What does rm -rf command do on a Linux or Unix appeared first on nixCraft.

How to update Lenovo BIOS from Linux without using WindowsnixCraft

I am using Lenovo laptop. I want to update my BIOS but do not have Windows installed my system. How do I update Lenovo BIOS from Linux without using MS-Windows operating system with the help of a USB stick?

The post How to update Lenovo BIOS from Linux without using Windows appeared first on nixCraft.

How to backup FreeNAS configuration file and restore itnixCraft

I have FreeNAS server configured to backup data for my office. How do I backup FreeNAS configuration file?

The post How to backup FreeNAS configuration file and restore it appeared first on nixCraft.

ss command: Display Linux TCP / UDP Network/Socket InformationnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Some Linux distro considered the nestat command as deprecated and therefore should be phased out in favor of more modern replacements such as ss command. Most Linux distributions shipped with ss and many monitoring tools. Being familiar with this tool helps enhance your understanding of what's going on in the system sockets and enables you to find the possible causes of a performance problem.



The post ss command: Display Linux TCP / UDP Network/Socket Information appeared first on nixCraft.

5 Awesome Open Source Cloning SoftwarenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



In this post, I am going to list the Free and Open Source Cloning Software for Disk Imaging and Cloning that you can use for GNU/Linux, *BSD and Mac OS X desktop operating systems.



The post 5 Awesome Open Source Cloning Software appeared first on nixCraft.

How To Run Multiple SSH Command On Remote Machine And Exit SafelynixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I run multiple commands in bash on a remote Unix or Linux server? What is the best way to SSH in and run various unix commands in a bash shell?



The post How To Run Multiple SSH Command On Remote Machine And Exit Safely appeared first on nixCraft.

Curl Set User Agent Command on Linux or UnixnixCraft

I need to set the user agent header for curl command. How can I set or change user agent with curl command on Linux or Unix like system?

The post Curl Set User Agent Command on Linux or Unix appeared first on nixCraft.

How to patch update Suse Enterprise Linux server commandnixCraft

How do I patch and update Suse Enterprise Linux server from the command line option over ssh based session?

The post How to patch update Suse Enterprise Linux server command appeared first on nixCraft.

How to find serial number of Lenovo laptop from LinuxnixCraft

I need to list serial number of Lenovo laptop to check warranty. How do I find a serial number of Lenovo laptop from Linux command line without rebooting and opening BIOS option?

The post How to find serial number of Lenovo laptop from Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

How to find ip address of Linux KVM guest virtual machinenixCraft

How do I find out an IP address of Linux KVM guest from Linux host itself? I wanted to ssh into KVM guest VM. How can I find the IP address of a KVM Virtual Machine Guest on a CentOS Linux 7.x server?

The post How to find ip address of Linux KVM guest virtual machine appeared first on nixCraft.

Download Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) CD/DVDnixCraft

Ubuntu Linux version 18.04 LTS (codenamed "Bionic Beaver") has been released and available for download. Ubuntu Linux is a community-based Linux distribution, and you can download Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS version today. The latest release of Ubuntu brings the best open source technologies together on one platform, with the benefit of free updates for five years. This newest release of Ubuntu Server and desktop heavily focused on supporting cloud computing, IoT, AI, machine learning, 64-bit ARM-based server, and more.

The post Download Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) CD/DVD appeared first on nixCraft.

How to redirect Nginx non-www to www domain over SSLnixCraft

I am getting an error that reads, "Your connection is not secure" when trying to redirect https://theos.in/ to https://www.theos.in/ domain using HTTP 301. How do I redirect Nginx non-www to www domain over SSL?

The post How to redirect Nginx non-www to www domain over SSL appeared first on nixCraft.

How to patch Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities on FreeBSDnixCraft

All supported versions of FreeBSD affected by Meltdown (CVE-2017-5754), Spectre variant 1 (CVE-2017-5753), and Spectre variant 2 (CVE-2017-5715). How do I patch Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities on FreeBSD (speculative execution vulnerabilities) server powered by 64 bit Intel CPU?

The post How to patch Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities on FreeBSD appeared first on nixCraft.

RHEL 7.5 released and here is how to upgrade 7.4 to 7.5nixCraft

Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7.5 released. This version includes updates and various improvements such as GNOME rebased to version 3.26, LibreOffice rebased to version 5.3, Support for libva (VA-API) added, GStreamer now supports mp3 and more. RHEL is one of the leading enterprise Linux distribution for both bare metal and cloud platform. It targeted toward the commercial users. RHEL works with x86-64, IBM System z, and other platforms.

The post RHEL 7.5 released and here is how to upgrade 7.4 to 7.5 appeared first on nixCraft.

OpenBSD 6.3 released ( Download of the day )nixCraft

OpenBSD version 6.3 has been released. OpenBSD is demonstrating to be an excellent server operating system. Security is more critical now than ever before. OpenBSD leads the pack when it comes to security features. OpenBSD provides a very robust and trustworthy system that comes with the cutting-edge security feature. OpenBSD 6.3 continues to offer the ? Continue reading "OpenBSD 6.3 released ( Download of the day )"

The post OpenBSD 6.3 released ( Download of the day ) appeared first on nixCraft.

Book review: Ed MasterynixCraft

Book review: Ed Masteryed is a powerful line text editor for the Linux and Unix-like systems. It was one of the first standard Unix text editor developed in 1969 by Ken Thompson. Much older and legacy Unix like system only shipped with ed for the rescue purpose. There was no vi. So learning ed might be a good idea. A low-level understanding of ed editor helps when one uses a high-level application such as vi or vim. The "Ed Mastery" book teaches you how to use the ed and forgotten art of Unix where the line-oriented paradigm is the only option. The author describe book as, "If you don't know ed, you're not a real sysadmin. Forty years after ed's introduction, author Michael W Lucas has finally unlocked the mysteries of ed for everyone. With Ed Mastery, you too can become a proper Unix sysadmin."

The post Book review: Ed Mastery appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux/Unix desktop fun: sl ? a mirror version of lsnixCraft

One of the most common mistakes is typing sl instead of ls command. I set up an alias, i.e., alias sl=ls; but then you may miss out the steam train with a whistle. sl is a joke software or classic UNIX game. It is a steam locomotive runs across your screen if you type ?sl? ? Continue reading "Linux/Unix desktop fun: sl ? a mirror version of ls"

The post Linux/Unix desktop fun: sl ? a mirror version of ls appeared first on nixCraft.

Raspberry PI 3 model B+ Released: Complete specs and pricingnixCraft

A new version of the Raspberry PI 3 model B+ has released, and it is incredible update over the older model. Just over two years ago, I got Raspberry Pi 3 Model B. It was my first 64-bit ARM board. It came with 64-bit CPU. Here are the complete specs for updated 64-bit credit card size computer.

The post Raspberry PI 3 model B+ Released: Complete specs and pricing appeared first on nixCraft.

Debian Linux 9.4 released and here is how to upgrade itnixCraft

The Debian GNU/Linux project has released an updated version of its stable Linux distribution Debian 9 ("stretch"). You must upgrade to get corrections for security problem as this version made a few adjustments for the severe issue found in Debian version 9.3. Debian is a Unix-like (Linux distro) operating system and a distribution of Free Software. It is mainly maintained and updated through the work of many users who volunteer their time and effort. The Debian Project was first announced in 1993 by Ian Murdock.

The post Debian Linux 9.4 released and here is how to upgrade it appeared first on nixCraft.

How to change theme in Ubuntu 16.04/17.10nixCraft

I am unable to find an option to change themes in Ubuntu Linux. How do I install or change themes in Ubuntu 16.04/17.10 Linux? Ubuntu Tweak is utility software that makes it easy to configure your system and desktop environments for Ubuntu or Gnome based desktop. It works on Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora and other Linux ? Continue reading "How to change theme in Ubuntu 16.04/17.10"

The post How to change theme in Ubuntu 16.04/17.10 appeared first on nixCraft.

400K+ Exim MTA affected by overflow vulnerability on Linux/UnixnixCraft

Exim is a free and open source message transfer agent (MTA) developed at the University of Cambridge. It is famous on Unix and Linux systems connected to the Internet. It is freely available under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence. There is a buffer overflow in base64d() of Exim MTA that allows an ? Continue reading "400K+ Exim MTA affected by overflow vulnerability on Linux/Unix"

The post 400K+ Exim MTA affected by overflow vulnerability on Linux/Unix appeared first on nixCraft.

Book Review: SSH Mastery ? OpenSSH, PuTTY, Tunnels & KeysnixCraft

Book Review: SSH Mastery

OpenSSH needs no introduction. OpenSSH is a free and open source suite of security-related software based on the SSH protocol. OpenSSH provides secure network communication and tunneling capabilities. OpenSSH gives peace of mind when communicating with Linux or Unix-like server over the Internet on the insecure network.

SSH is essential for both sysadmins and developers. The book "SSH Mastery" (2nd ed) talks about OpenSSH server, clients, encryption, public/private keys, VPNs and other security-related network-level utilities based on the Secure Shell SSH protocol.

The post Book Review: SSH Mastery ? OpenSSH, PuTTY, Tunnels & Keys appeared first on nixCraft.

Secure memcached server to avoid DDoS amplification attacksnixCraft

I am worried that my Memcached server used for DDoS amplification attacks. How do I secure Memcached server on Linux or Unix-like system to avoid an attacker to exploit my Memcached services as an amplification vector, causing unexpected volumes of traffic to be sent to targeted networks? Memcached is a free and open source distributed ? Continue reading "Secure memcached server to avoid DDoS amplification attacks"

The post Secure memcached server to avoid DDoS amplification attacks appeared first on nixCraft.

How to patch Meltdown vulnerability on OpenBSD UnixnixCraft

I read that OpenBSD is the first BSD family of the operating system to release updates for its stable releases to mitigate the Meltdown vulnerability. How do I patch Meltdown on OpenBSD Unix operating system?

The post How to patch Meltdown vulnerability on OpenBSD Unix appeared first on nixCraft.

Delete all root mail / inbox on Linux / Unix from a shell promptnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I do not want to disable email facility but just wanted to get rid of all root emails. How do I delete root user mails (mailbox) file in Linux or Unix like system?



The post Delete all root mail / inbox on Linux / Unix from a shell prompt appeared first on nixCraft.

How to use Chomper Internet blocker for Linux to increase productivitynixCraft

Chomper is a free and open source Python cli for Linux desktop. It lets you block access to distracting websites for specified periods of time. The program is intended to help you with issues being productive on a desktop due to Internet distractions. One can set a period to block websites. Until that timer expires, you will be unable to access sites.

The post How to use Chomper Internet blocker for Linux to increase productivity appeared first on nixCraft.

How to create AWS ec2 key using AnsiblenixCraft

I wanted to create Amazon EC2 Key pair using Ansible tool. I do not want to use AWS CLI. Is it possible to create AWS ec2 key using Ansible? You need to use ec2_key module of Ansible. This module has a dependency on python-boto version 2.5 or above. boto is nothing but a python interface ? Continue reading "How to create AWS ec2 key using Ansible"

The post How to create AWS ec2 key using Ansible appeared first on nixCraft.

How to reset forgotten root password for Linux KVM qcow2 image/vmnixCraft

I have Debian Linux VM running on KVM. I think I forgotten the password for the root account and I am no longer able to run ?su -? command. How do I reset the password for the root account for KVM VM which is in qcow2 format? You can modify images with guestfish. It is ? Continue reading "How to reset forgotten root password for Linux KVM qcow2 image/vm"

The post How to reset forgotten root password for Linux KVM qcow2 image/vm appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install VLC 3 application (Vetinari) on LinuxnixCraft

How do I install VLC version 3 app on Linux to watch DVDs/CDs and stream music/videos/Chromecast devices on Linux?

The post How to install VLC 3 application (Vetinari) on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install KVM server on Debian Linux 9 Headless ServernixCraft

Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) is a virtualization module for the Linux kernel that turns it into a hypervisor. How can I install KVM with bridged networking, setup guest operating system as the back-end virtualization technology for non-graphic Debain Linux 9.x server? You can use KVM to run multiple operating systems such as Windows, *BSD, Linux ? Continue reading "How to install KVM server on Debian Linux 9 Headless Server"

The post How to install KVM server on Debian Linux 9 Headless Server appeared first on nixCraft.

How to setup and configure network bridge on Debian LinuxnixCraft

I am new Debian Linux user. I want to setup Bridge for virtualised environments (KVM) running on Debian Linux. How do I setup network bridging in /etc/network/interfaces on Debian Linux 9.x server?

The post How to setup and configure network bridge on Debian Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

How To Install Nginx on SUSE Linux Enterprise server 12nixCraft

How do I install and setup Nginx server on SuSe Enterprise Linux server (SLES) version 12 SP 3?

The post How To Install Nginx on SUSE Linux Enterprise server 12 appeared first on nixCraft.

How to print filename with awk on Linux / UnixnixCraft

I would like to print filename with awk on Linux / Unix-like system. How do I print filename in BEGIN section of awk? Can I print the name of the current input file using gawk/awk?

The post How to print filename with awk on Linux / Unix appeared first on nixCraft.

How to use lftp to accelerate ftp/https download speed on Linux/UNIXnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



LFTP is a sophisticated file transfer program supporting a number of network protocols (ftp, http, sftp, fish, torrent). Like BASH, it has job control and uses the readline library for input. Let us see how to use lftp to download files in parallel to increase download speed.



The post How to use lftp to accelerate ftp/https download speed on Linux/UNIX appeared first on nixCraft.

How To Recover Linux Grub Boot Loader PasswordnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



GNU GRUB (short for GNU GRand Unified Bootloader) is a boot loader package from the GNU Project. If you have, a password protected grub boot loader, and you forgot both root and grub password, then you can recover grub-boot loader password using the following method/procedure.



The post How To Recover Linux Grub Boot Loader Password appeared first on nixCraft.

OpenBSD install or add binary software package using pkg_addnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Just like FreeBSD, OpenBSD comes with pkg_add command. It is used to install a binary or upgrade packages from HTTP or FTP mirror over the internet. The pkg_add command used to update existing packages too.



The post OpenBSD install or add binary software package using pkg_add appeared first on nixCraft.

How to use yum-cron to automatically update RHEL/CentOS LinuxnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



The yum command line tool is used to install and update software packages under RHEL / CentOS Linux server. I know how to apply updates using yum update command line, but I would like to use cron to update packages where appropriate manually. How do I configure yum to install software patches/updates automatically with cron?



The post How to use yum-cron to automatically update RHEL/CentOS Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

Download Tux Paint Program For Young Children (Linux/macOS/Windows)nixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Tux Paint is a simple graphics educational painting programs for young children. It is free, Open Source software, distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License.



The post Download Tux Paint Program For Young Children (Linux/macOS/Windows) appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux Find Out Last System Reboot Time and Date CommandnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



So, how do you find out your Linux or UNIX-like system was last rebooted? How do you display the system shutdown date and time?



The post Linux Find Out Last System Reboot Time and Date Command appeared first on nixCraft.

Shell script to setup an LXD (Linux Containers) VM lab for testing purposenixCraft

A sample shell script to build an LXD (Linux Containers) VM lab on Ubuntu Linux 16.04 LTS server.

Shell script to mirror backups to another server in pull mode using rsyncnixCraft

A sample shell script to mirror remote server directory in pull mode for offsite backups using rsync command on Linux/Unix-like system.

Linux/Unix bash shell script to purge Cloudflare url/images from the command linenixCraft

Here is a simple and easy to use bash shell script to purge/delete Cloudflare url/images cache from the command line without using web interface.