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FreeBSD add a user to groupnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I add a user to group under FreeBSD operating system? How can I add a user named top to existing group on a FreeBSD? How do I add a user to a group in FreeBSD?



The post FreeBSD add a user to group appeared first on nixCraft.

FreeBSD Install Nginx Webserver TutorialnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I install an Nginx webserver under a FreeBSD Unix operating system? How can I install Nginx web server on FreeBSD?



The post FreeBSD Install Nginx Webserver Tutorial appeared first on nixCraft.

FreeBSD install PHP 7.2 with FPM for NginxnixCraft

How do I install install PHP 7.2 with FPM for Nginx web server running on FreeBSD operating system?

The post FreeBSD install PHP 7.2 with FPM for Nginx appeared first on nixCraft.

Ubuntu Enable & Setup Automatic Unattended Security UpdatesnixCraft

I have minimal Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS server setup in the cloud. I read that one can configure Ubuntu Linux to download and install security updates when released automatically. How can I set up automatic security updates on Ubuntu Linux 18.04 or 16.04 LTS system?

The post Ubuntu Enable & Setup Automatic Unattended Security Updates appeared first on nixCraft.

How to compile and install Linux Kernel 4.18.8 from source codenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Compiling a custom kernel has its advantages and disadvantages. However, new Linux user/admin find it difficult to compile Linux kernel. Compiling kernel needs to understand few things and then type a couple of commands. This step by step howto covers compiling Linux kernel version 4.18.xx under an Ubuntu or Debian Linux. The following instructions successfully tested on an RHEL 7/CentOS 7 (and clones), Debian Linux, Ubuntu Linux and Fedora Linux 28. However, instructions remain the same for any other Linux distribution.



The post How to compile and install Linux Kernel 4.18.8 from source code appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux find largest file in directory recursively using find/dunixCraft

I have 500GB SSD installed on my Linux server. My web server is running out of the disk space. I need to find a biggest or largest file concerning file size on the disk. How do I find largest file in a directory recursively using the find command?

The post Linux find largest file in directory recursively using find/du appeared first on nixCraft.

CentOS / RHEL See Detailed History Of yum history CommandsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I would like to see detailed information on the history of yum transactions such as updates, deleted packages, and other information. How do I see history of yum commands on a CentOS Linux/ RHEL 6.x or 7.x based server? How do I undo or redo or rollback packages using yum command?



The post CentOS / RHEL See Detailed History Of yum history Commands appeared first on nixCraft.

Bash get basename of filename or directory namenixCraft

I need to extract file basename in bash running on Linux. How can I use bash to get basename of filename or directory name for given path?

The post Bash get basename of filename or directory name appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux / Unix Find All The Files Owned By a Particular User / GroupnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Want to find files created by a particular user or group on a Linux or Unix-like system from the CLI? Try these tips.



The post Linux / Unix Find All The Files Owned By a Particular User / Group appeared first on nixCraft.

Book review Mastering Vim Quickly From WTF to OMG in no timenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



The vim editor is a free and open source text editor. It is a clone of vi text editor. Vim is extremely popular among the Linux, macOS and Unix-like system users. Vim has many commands. It comes with a pretty extensive built-in manual too. One might get lost in the built-in manual. Let us see if 'Mastering Vim Quickly From WTF to OMG in no time' can help a new or experienced vim user to increase productivity.



The post Book review Mastering Vim Quickly From WTF to OMG in no time appeared first on nixCraft.

Unix / Linux Print Environment Variables CommandnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I am a new shell user. How do I print or list environment variables on Linux and Unix-like operating system using shell prompt? In Linux and Unix, how can I print values of all my environment variables?



The post Unix / Linux Print Environment Variables Command appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux / Unix id Command ExamplesnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I am a new Linux and Unix system user. How do I find out the user and groups names and numeric IDs of the current user or any users on my server? How can I display and effective IDs on the system using command line options? In Linux, how do I find a user's UID or GID?



The post Linux / Unix id Command Examples appeared first on nixCraft.

curl hide progress bar output on Linux/Unix shell scriptsnixCraft

I am a new Ubuntu Linux user. I am writing a shell script and using the curl command to grab URL output using curl https://example.com/data/api/$key/hash.html. However, the curl command is outputting complete progress information that my script does not need it. How can I get curl command not to show the progress bar output? How can I hide curl command output? Is there is a simple way for silencing curl's progress output on an Ubuntu Linux desktop?

The post curl hide progress bar output on Linux/Unix shell scripts appeared first on nixCraft.

How To Create Disk Image on Mac OS X With dd CommandnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Learn how to create or write images to disk on Apple macOS Unix operating system with dd command. Useful if you want to write or read Raspberry PI or router images downloaded from the Internet.



The post How To Create Disk Image on Mac OS X With dd Command appeared first on nixCraft.

10 Alpine Linux apk Command ExamplesnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



New to lightweight and systemd free Alpine Linux and package management? Try my simple guide that explains how to install, remove, query and manage packages on an Alpine Linux.



The post 10 Alpine Linux apk Command Examples appeared first on nixCraft.

Secure Nginx with Let?s Encrypt on Ubuntu 18.04 with DNS ValidationnixCraft

How do I install and secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 18.04 with DNS validation API? My domain DNS hosted with Cloudflare. How do I install Let's Encrypt to create SSL certificates with Nginx web server running on an Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS server?

The post Secure Nginx with Let?s Encrypt on Ubuntu 18.04 with DNS Validation appeared first on nixCraft.

Install and Configure Nginx on Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTSnixCraft

I am a new Ubuntu Linux user and a web developer by profession. How do I install and configure Nginx on Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS?

The post Install and Configure Nginx on Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS appeared first on nixCraft.

Install and Configure TigerVNC server on Ubuntu 18.04nixCraft

How do I install and configure TigerVNC server on Ubuntu 18.04 for remote desktop access? How to enable Remote Desktop connection between two Ubuntu Linux systems (server and client) to access GUI? How to configure Virtual Network Computing (VNC) in Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS or 18.10 server?

The post Install and Configure TigerVNC server on Ubuntu 18.04 appeared first on nixCraft.

Ubuntu Linux install Gnome desktop on servernixCraft

I installed Ubuntu Linux 16.04 LTS / 18.04 LTS / 18.10 server operating system with RAID support. I need to run a Gnome desktop too. How do I install Gnome desktop on the server after installation using the CLI?

The post Ubuntu Linux install Gnome desktop on server appeared first on nixCraft.

Ubuntu Linux install OpenSSH servernixCraft

How do I install OpenSSH server on Ubuntu Linux?

The post Ubuntu Linux install OpenSSH server appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux mount an LVM volume / partition commandnixCraft

I have some data on second SATA hard disk created by Fedora Linux installer with some data. How do I mount an LVM volume/partition in Linux to access my data? Can you tell me the command to mount LVM partition in Linux?

The post Linux mount an LVM volume / partition command appeared first on nixCraft.

Install LXD pure-container hypervisor on Ubuntu 18.04 LTSnixCraft

How can I install LXD pure-container hypervisor on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS to runs unmodified Debian/Ubuntu/CentOS Linux operating systems VM at incredible speed? How do I setup and use LXD on Ubuntu Linux server?

The post Install LXD pure-container hypervisor on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux iotop Check What's Stressing Increasing Load On Hard DisksnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



Learn how to install and use iotop to see the I/O bandwidth read and written by each process/thread on your Linux server. Useful to find out current DISK I/O usage by processes.



The post Linux iotop Check What's Stressing Increasing Load On Hard Disks appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux See Bandwidth Usage Per Process With Nethogs ToolnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How can I see bandwidth usage per PID, command, and user on a Linux operating systems?



The post Linux See Bandwidth Usage Per Process With Nethogs Tool appeared first on nixCraft.

How to update source tree at /usr/src using svn on FreeBSDnixCraft

I compiled custom FreeBSD kernel for my FreeBSD jail to use vnet. How do I update my FreeBSD /usr/src/ code tree? How can I update source tree at /usr/src on FreeBSD using svn command to patch and compile kernel again?

The post How to update source tree at /usr/src using svn on FreeBSD appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux dd Command Show Progress Copy Bar With StatusnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I use the Linux or Unix dd command while coping /dev/sda to /deb/sdb and display a progress bar when data goes through a pipe? How do I monitor the progress of dd on Linux?



The post Linux dd Command Show Progress Copy Bar With Status appeared first on nixCraft.

E: Unable to locate package on Ubuntu Linux when using apt-getnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I am getting an error that read as 'Unable to locate package' while trying to install packages with apt-get. How do I fix this problem?



The post E: Unable to locate package on Ubuntu Linux when using apt-get appeared first on nixCraft.

diff Command Colorize Output On the Unix / Linux Command LinenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



colordiff is a wrapper for diff and produces the same output as diff but with coloured syntax highlighting at the command line to improve readability. colordiff has been tested on various flavours of Linux and under OpenBSD, but should be broadly portable to other systems.



The post diff Command Colorize Output On the Unix / Linux Command Line appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install htop on macOS Unix desktop running on MacBook PronixCraft

I like htop on my Ubuntu server. The man page says it is a free (GPL) ncurses-based process viewer for Linux. Can I install htop on macOS Unix desktop? How do I install htop on macOS sierra based MacBook pro?

The post How to install htop on macOS Unix desktop running on MacBook Pro appeared first on nixCraft.

Debian/Ubuntu: Setup Planet Venus To Combine Two Or More RSS FeedsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I setup 'Planet Venus' under Debian or Ubuntu Linux to downloads news feeds (RSS) published by web sites and aggregates their content together into a single combined feed? How do I setup an Atom/RSS feed aggregator called Planet Venus on a Debian or Ubuntu Linux?



The post Debian/Ubuntu: Setup Planet Venus To Combine Two Or More RSS Feeds appeared first on nixCraft.

Install IPTraf on a CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux To Get Network StatisticsnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I install iptraf-ng a console based network statistic monitoring utility on a CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux server or workstation?



The post Install IPTraf on a CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux To Get Network Statistics appeared first on nixCraft.

Bash Shell Find Out If a Variable Is Empty Or NotnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



My shell script depends upon user input. How do I find out if a variable called $_JAIL path is empty under a Linux / Apple OS X / Unix like operating systems? Can you tell me command on bash shell to find out if a variable is empty?



The post Bash Shell Find Out If a Variable Is Empty Or Not appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux Find Out Video Card GPU Memory RAM Size Using Command LinenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I'm trying to find out my NVDIA display card memory size on Fedora Linux. How do I find out my VIDEO Card (VGA) Memory size on Linux?



The post Linux Find Out Video Card GPU Memory RAM Size Using Command Line appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux copy and clone USB stick including partitions commandnixCraft

I need to copy and clone existing data from a USB stick. How do I clone a bootable USB key/pen drive on Linux? How do I clone a USB stick including partitions on Linux operating system?

The post Linux copy and clone USB stick including partitions command appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux Iptables Setup Firewall For a Web ServernixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



I have setup an Apache web server on CentOS Linux. How do I configure firewall to allow or block access? How do I setup firewall for a web server under RHEL or CentOS Linux v6.x or 7.x?



The post Linux Iptables Setup Firewall For a Web Server appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux Find Files By Date And List Files Modified On a Specific DatenixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I find files by date under UNIX and Linux system? How search for files that created on a specific date on Linux or Unix-like system? How to get a list all files that have been modified on a specific date on Linux or Unix?



The post Linux Find Files By Date And List Files Modified On a Specific Date appeared first on nixCraft.

Minify and Compress CSS/Javascript Files At a Linux/Unix Shell PromptnixCraft Updated Tutorials/Posts



How do I minify and compress CSS __DESC__ JS files on Linux or Unix-like system using shell prompt on my server? How can I minify JavaScripts and stylesheets at shell promot so they can download faster over the Internet without using any online tools?



The post Minify and Compress CSS/Javascript Files At a Linux/Unix Shell Prompt appeared first on nixCraft.

Create a Bootable Windows 10 USB in Linux With Ubuntu/Debian GUInixCraft

I am a Linux user and sysadmin. However, I need to install a couple of Windows 10 enterprise or MS-Windows 10 LTSB on a desktop system for developers. How do I create a bootable Windows 10 USB in Linux with GUI tools on an Ubuntu Linux 18.04 or Debian Linux 9.x?

The post Create a Bootable Windows 10 USB in Linux With Ubuntu/Debian GUI appeared first on nixCraft.

How to remotely access Intel AMT KVM from Linux desktopnixCraft

I have enabled Intel AMT/ME in my Xeon server grade CPU hosted in remote data center building for OOB purpose. I do not want to use Windows 10 Pro edition. Is it possible to access Intel AMT/ME KVM session from Linux? How do I remotely access Intel AMT KVM from Linux desktop and do out of band management of my server?

The post How to remotely access Intel AMT KVM from Linux desktop appeared first on nixCraft.

pfSense email notification when fallback WAN connection goes downnixCraft

I have two WAN connection. The first WAN connection connects via FTTH modem. The second connection connects via 4G LTE CPE modem. I have configured fallback and load balanced dual WAN connection on my pfSense box. However, once in while the Internet connection either one of the WAN goes down. How can I tell pfSense to send an email notification when fallback (or any) WAN connection goes down? How to configure pfSense email notification when an alert happens?

The post pfSense email notification when fallback WAN connection goes down appeared first on nixCraft.

KVM forward ports to guests VM with UFW on LinuxnixCraft

My Debian/Ubuntu/CentOS Linux server using KVM as a hypervisor. I would like to forward ports to guests VM with UFW iptables. How do I forward ports on a Linux server running libvirt/KVM to specified ports on VM's, when using NAT?

The post KVM forward ports to guests VM with UFW on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

Helios4 Arm-Based Open Source NAS SBC For Linux/FreeBSDnixCraft

Helios4 is ARM-based open source NAS SBC (Single-board computer) for Linux. This NAS (Network Attached Storage) comes with 4 SATA 3.0 port and comes with ECC memory. Let us see some details about the Helios4 Arm-Based Open Source NAS SBC and ongoing Kickstarter camping.

The post Helios4 Arm-Based Open Source NAS SBC For Linux/FreeBSD appeared first on nixCraft.

Ping using specific gateway interface or source IP addressnixCraft

I have multiple gateways configured on my Linux or Unix based router. How do I ping through a specific interface of the gateway? How can I ping using a particular source IP address?

The post Ping using specific gateway interface or source IP address appeared first on nixCraft.

Slow performance issues of OpenBSD or FreeBSD KVM guest on LinuxnixCraft

I run a couple of OpenBSD and FreeBSD guest/virtual machines under KVM. My server has 32GB ram and 4C/8T Intel Xeon CPU. Everything was working fine until recent CentOS Linux 7 kernel update. After a fresh reboot of my CentOS 7 Linux box OpenBSD and FreeBSD machine become very slow and after 24 hours stop responding to the network request. How can I solve significant performance problems with BSD family of oses running on CentOS 7 KVM?

The post Slow performance issues of OpenBSD or FreeBSD KVM guest on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

How to Set Up and Use LXD on CentOS Linux 7.x ServernixCraft

I know how to setup LXD on a Debian or Ubuntu Linux. How do I install, configure and setup LXD on CentOS Linux 7.x? Introduction: Linux containers give an environment as close as possible as the one you would get from a VM but without the overhead that comes with running a separate kernel and ? Continue reading "How to Set Up and Use LXD on CentOS Linux 7.x Server"

The post How to Set Up and Use LXD on CentOS Linux 7.x Server appeared first on nixCraft.

How to configure a FreeBSD Jail with vnet and ZFSnixCraft

How do I install and configure a FreeBSD jail with vnet? How do I create FreeBSD jail with /etc/jail.conf without using iocage command or ezjail command line tool?

The post How to configure a FreeBSD Jail with vnet and ZFS appeared first on nixCraft.

Ansible reboot a Debian/Ubuntu Linux for kernel update and wait for itnixCraft

How can I reboot a Debian or Ubuntu Linux server/host remotely using an Ansible playbook for kernel update and wait for it to come back again?

The post Ansible reboot a Debian/Ubuntu Linux for kernel update and wait for it appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install and configure OpenVPN client on OpenBSDnixCraft

I have a file named openvpn.client.ovpn. How do I use this file to connect my OpenBSD based desktop to remote OpenVPN server and setup secure VPN? How do I configure OpenVPN client on OpenBSD Unix system?

The post How to install and configure OpenVPN client on OpenBSD appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install and enable Bash auto completion in Fedora LinuxnixCraft

I am a new Fedora Linux user. How do I install and enable Bash auto completion in Fedora Linux server?

The post How to install and enable Bash auto completion in Fedora Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

How to add encrypted ZFS pool on FreeBSD servernixCraft

I recently added hard disk to my FreeBSD based server. How do I configure an encrypted ZFS pool to store data on this disk? How can I add encrypted ZFS pool on FreeBSD 11.x server?

The post How to add encrypted ZFS pool on FreeBSD server appeared first on nixCraft.

How to add cron job on Asuswrt Merlin Wifi RouternixCraft

How can I add or delete cron jobs on my wifi router powered by Asuswrt Merlin firmware? How do I add cron job on Asuswrt Merlin Wifi router using command line?

The post How to add cron job on Asuswrt Merlin Wifi Router appeared first on nixCraft.

How to open DNS port 53 using ufw on Ubuntu/Debian LinuxnixCraft

How do I allow incoming DNS tcp/udp port 53 connections from a specific IP address or subnet on a Ubuntu or Debian Linux server using ufw? How can I open DNS port 53 using ufw firewall?

The post How to open DNS port 53 using ufw on Ubuntu/Debian Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

How to Restart Linux server using putty ssh client on WindowsnixCraft

I am using Windows version 7 or 10 on my desktop. How can I use putty client to restart Linux server? What is the procedure to restart Linux server using putty from Windows 7 or 10 desktop?

The post How to Restart Linux server using putty ssh client on Windows appeared first on nixCraft.

Debian Linux 7 Long Term Support reached end-of-lifenixCraft

The Debian Linux version 7 (codenamed "Wheezy") support ended on 31st May 2018. It was initial release on May 4, 2013. Each LTS ( initial release on May 4, 2013) support lasts for five years. It means Debian project will not provide any security updates for Debian 7. As Debian Linux 7 Long Term support ends, hence you must upgrade your system to keep it secure. This page list all essentials steps to update your system from Debian 7 to Debian 8.

The post Debian Linux 7 Long Term Support reached end-of-life appeared first on nixCraft.

6 Github alternatives that are open source and self-hostednixCraft

Git is a version control system. Linus Torvalds created Git in 2005 for development of the Linux kernel. Git is mainly used for software source code management. However, it can be used to keep track of any set of files such as HTML or CSS or a tutorial written in the markup language. Git is a Distributed Version Control Systems. A dedicated Git server helps to manage access control, show contents of a Git repository via the web and manage multiple repositories. In a Git, clients do not just check out the latest snapshots of the files. They entirely mirror the repository including history.

The post 6 Github alternatives that are open source and self-hosted appeared first on nixCraft.

How to reset a KVM clone virtual Machines with virt-sysprep on LinuxnixCraft

I know how to clone a KVM VM. Once cloned I would like to reset cloned VM. How do I reset, unconfigure or customize a virtual machine so clones can be made? How can I reset a KVM clone virtual Machines with virt-sysprep command on a Linux server based hypervisor?

The post How to reset a KVM clone virtual Machines with virt-sysprep on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux list a KVM vm guest using virsh commandnixCraft

How do I list a KVM vm guest using virsh command on a Linux based hypervisor?

The post Linux list a KVM vm guest using virsh command appeared first on nixCraft.

How to add comments to iptables rules on LinuxnixCraft

I am a new Linux sysadmin. How can I add comments to iptables rules on Linux using the iptables command?

The post How to add comments to iptables rules on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

Download Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) CD/DVDnixCraft

Ubuntu Linux version 18.04 LTS (codenamed "Bionic Beaver") has been released and available for download. Ubuntu Linux is a community-based Linux distribution, and you can download Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS version today. The latest release of Ubuntu brings the best open source technologies together on one platform, with the benefit of free updates for five years. This newest release of Ubuntu Server and desktop heavily focused on supporting cloud computing, IoT, AI, machine learning, 64-bit ARM-based server, and more.

The post Download Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) CD/DVD appeared first on nixCraft.

RHEL 7.5 released and here is how to upgrade 7.4 to 7.5nixCraft

Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7.5 released. This version includes updates and various improvements such as GNOME rebased to version 3.26, LibreOffice rebased to version 5.3, Support for libva (VA-API) added, GStreamer now supports mp3 and more. RHEL is one of the leading enterprise Linux distribution for both bare metal and cloud platform. It targeted toward the commercial users. RHEL works with x86-64, IBM System z, and other platforms.

The post RHEL 7.5 released and here is how to upgrade 7.4 to 7.5 appeared first on nixCraft.